Smooth Pursuit

15 February 2022
10 mins
Reading

What is the smooth pursuit test?

The smooth pursuit test measures the patient’s ability to accurately track a visual target in a smooth controlled manner. Smooth pursuit tracking assesses the patient’s central vestibular system. Although several methods of smooth pursuit tracking have been researched, it is the controlled-velocity method that has been proven to be the most clinically useful; therefore, it is the controlled-velocity method that is shown in this guide.

 

Patient instructions

“You will see a green dot on the screen. The dot will move from one side of the screen to the other in a smooth, predictable motion. Your task is to follow the dot with your eyes while keeping your eyes precisely on the dot. Try not to move your head and try not to get “ahead of” or “behind” the target.”

 

Normal smooth pursuit results

A patient with the ability to perform smooth pursuit tracking normally will produce a response in which the stimulus target and the eye tracings are virtually identical. The stimulus is represented by the yellow target line and the right and left eyes are represented by red and blue tracings, respectively. The responses for each cycle of the pursuit are represented on the graph by red dots for the right eye and blue dots for the left eye. Responses that are within threshold limits will fall in the white region and responses outside the threshold limits will fall in the grey shaded region.

Normal smooth pursuit results, including a smooth sinusoid for eye position, gain results in the white, normal region, and normal symmetry.

Smooth pursuit test showing a normal response to an increasing-frequency (Hz) target over time.

 

Abnormal smooth pursuit results

It is important to know that the smooth pursuit tracking test is the most sensitive of the ocular tests to age-effect (i.e. older patients are the more likely to produce errors during the performance of the task). Also, unlike saccades, where the movement of the eye is something that is unconsciously done many times throughout the day, the smooth pursuit tracking task is something that may need to be “taught” to the patient. Therefore, it is necessary that the patient be allowed to perform two or three “trials” of the

task to look for the patient’s best performance (unless the patient performs the task accurately on the first trial).

Abnormal smooth pursuit results, including a jagged sinusoid for eye position, gain results in the grey, abnormal region, and abnormal symmetry.

Abnormal Smooth pursuit test showing reduced gains and saccadic intrusions in the higher frequencies with the patient having more difficulty when the target is moving towards the right.

*NOTE: It is possible that the patient can accurately track the target in one direction, but not in the other direction. In most cases, the abnormality will present itself toward the side that has the lesion.

 

Conclusion

Smooth pursuit tracking is an ocular test used to determine whether there is central pathology that is precluding accurate tracking of moving targets by the eyes. Smooth pursuit tracking is susceptible to an age-effect and may require that the examiner acclimate the patient to the task prior to recording. For a complete discussion of differential diagnosis using smooth pursuit tracking, refer to:

Jacobson, GP, and Shepard, NT. Balance Functional Assessment and Management, 2nd Ed. San Diego; Plural Publishing, 2015 

*NOTE: This is intended only as a guide, official diagnosis should be deferred to the patient’s physician.


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